In Connector Supplier’s latest eBook, industry experts explore the mostly invisible but vital role of interconnects in automotive and transportation applications. In addition to the advanced electronic systems for driving, today’s vehicles have a plethora of electronics associated with safety, comfort, convenience, and entertainment. Secure high-speed data transfer is necessary in commercial vehicles for conducting business effectively and in emergency vehicles where fast and accurate information is critical for first responders. Charging systems are at the forefront of the growing electric vehicles market. Even the manufacture of automobiles and other vehicles has become highly automated. All these functions require rugged and reliable interconnects that can withstand a variety of harsh environment conditions while maintaining functionality.
CONNECTORS ON THE MOVE
CONNECTORS ON THE MOVE
In Connector Supplier’s latest eBook, industry experts explore the mostly invisible but vital role of interconnects in automotive and transportation applications. In addition to the advanced electronic systems for driving, today’s vehicles have a plethora of electronics associated with safety, comfort, convenience, and entertainment. Secure high-speed data transfer is necessary in commercial vehicles for conducting business effectively and in emergency vehicles where fast and accurate information is critical for first responders. Charging systems are at the forefront of the growing electric vehicles market. Even the manufacture of automobiles and other vehicles has become highly automated. All these functions require rugged and reliable interconnects that can withstand a variety of harsh environment conditions while maintaining functionality. In addition, this eBook features a broad selection of relevant connectivity products for the automotive and transportation markets from these top suppliers: Amphenol LTW, Arrow, Avnet, Axon’ Cable, CDM Electronics, Chief Enterprises, COAX Connectors, EDAC, ept USA, Globetech, Greenconn, Harwin, Heilind Electronics, Hirose Electric, JPC Connectivity, KYOCERA AVX, METZ CONNECT, Molex, Mouser, PEI-Genesis, Phoenix Contact, Powell Electronics, Rosenberger, RS, Smiths Interconnect, TTI Inc., and Waytek. Please enjoy this edition, the second of three 2023 eBooks. Our next eBook, The Age of Connected Technology , will be available in October 2023. This collection will explore the role of interconnects in all aspects of our increasingly connected world: IoT, IIoT, Industry 4.0, and the expansion of electrification as more and more industries embrace sustainability. In the meantime, please subscribe to our weekly e-newsletters, follow us on LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook, and check out our eBook archives for more applicable, expert-informed connectivity content.
Managing Editor Amy Goetzman
Associate Managing Editor AJ Born
Creative Director Raine Arzola
7 CONNECTOR CONSIDERATIONS FOR SEMI- TRUCKS, WORK TRUCKS, EMERGENCY, FIRE, AND POLICE VEHICLES WAYTEK INC. 12 THE FUTURE OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTATION AND THE ERA OF ELECTRIFICATION PEI-GENESIS … IN COMMERCIAL, WORK, AND EMERGENCY VEHICLES 20 KEY ATTRIBUTES NEEDED BY EV BATTERY MONITORING INTERCONNECTS HARWIN PLC 17 CHALLENGES IN CONNECTOR SELECTION IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHIEF ENTERPRISES … IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES 27 CHARGING TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENTS WILL ACCELERATE EV ADOPTION TTI AMERICAS 24 COMPACT DC CCS CHARGING CABLES ENABLE DC CHARGING AT HOME PHOENIX CONTACT
…IN IN-VEHICLE TECH
41 CONNECTING AUTOMOTIVE INFOTAINMENT SYSTEMS HIROSE ELECTRIC 38 AUTONOMY, AI, AND IOT INCREASE THE NEED FOR FASTER COMPUTING EPT USA
…IN HARSH AUTOMOTIVE ENVIRONMENTS
47 SELECTING CONNECTORS FOR AUTOMOTIVE MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING RS 53 CONNECTORS AND LEADFRAMES CONNECT ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND SENSORS IN CARS AXON’ CABLE 59 THE NEED FOR RUGGED CONNECTORS IN TRANSPORT VEHICLES EDAC INC. 63 FOUR ESSENTIAL CONSIDERATIONS WHEN SELECTING AUTOMOTIVE & TRANSPORTATION CONNECTORS AMPHENOL LTW TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD
66 PRODUCT BRIEFS A VARIETY OF PRODUCTS FROM TOP CONNECTOR SUPPLIERS
32 A GUIDE TO EV CHARGING POINTS AVNET
… IN COMMERCIAL, WORK, AND EMERGENCY VEHICLES
CONNECTOR CONSIDERATIONS FOR SEMI-TRUCKS, WORK TRUCKS, EMERGENCY, FIRE, AND POLICE VEHICLES ROB IVERSRUD, PRODUCT AND CATEGORY MANAGER WAYTEK INC.
speed data transfer capabilities can help first responders and other emergency professionals access critical data faster and more efficiently. CONNECTORS FOR ECUs Hybrid connectors that accept both current and signal wiring have been developed for use with vehicle electronic control units (ECUs). Molex CMC connectors and HDSCS connectors from TE Connectivity are two leading hybrid connector lines featuring high pin density. Because hybrid connectors handle both power and signal, they can reduce the wiring footprint in vehicles with complex electronics and data-driven accessories.
The transportation industry is constantly evolving to meet the growing demands of businesses and emergency services. Whether it's a semi-truck hauling goods across the country or a fire truck rushing to put out a blaze, these vehicles rely heavily on the connectors that power and control their complex systems. The right connector can mean the difference between a successful mission and a catastrophic failure. The connector considerations for semi- trucks, work trucks, emergency vehicles, and fire and police vehicles are crucial. Choosing the right connector helps ensure the safety and efficiency of these vehicles in various situations. Advancements in technology and the need for more efficient and streamlined systems have sparked the growing evolution of multi-pin connectors for use in these vehicles. HIGH-SPEED DATA TRANSFER The rise of connected vehicles and the Internet of Things has created an increasing need for high- speed data transfer between different systems within a vehicle. Multi-pin connectors with high-
A 48-circuit connector from the Molex CMC hybrid connector line (left) and an 18-position hybrid connector from TE Connectivity’s HDSCS line.
CAN BUS CONNECTORS Some connector types are designed to be compatible with J1939 communication requirements for use with the Controller Area Network (CAN) technology that is found in many of today’s specialty vehicles. Leading CAN Bus connectors like Amphenol Sine’s AT Series, AHD Series Data Connectors, and Trombetta’s line of Sealed CAN Bus Splitters all contain integrated resistors that ensure the proper flow of signal and current in CAN Bus systems.
Amphenol Sine’s AT Series (left) and AHD Series Data Connectors
A 6-Place Splitter with Gold Pins, one of several CAN bus connectors from Trombetta (above left). Gold pins are ideal for J1939 communication lines. Trombetta’s Right Angle CAN Bus Splitter (above right), features a flexible right-angle mounting option to minimize bending of wires. Trombetta splitters enable the breaking out of CAN signals via one connector, reducing the need for multiple plugs, wires, and harnesses.
MODULAR DESIGN Many modern work trucks and emergency vehicles are designed with modularity in mind. This means that different components and systems can be easily swapped out or upgraded as needed. Multi- pin connectors with a modular design can make it easier to integrate new systems and components into these vehicles without requiring extensive rewiring. Connectors with built-in busbars are ideal for applications where a common bussed electrical pathway is required, enabling quick modifications and integrations. A leading example is the Hyperbuss AT family of receptacle connectors (shown below) from Amphenol Sine Systems. A single Hyperbuss connector can take a power source and split it into many connections instead of using multiple external terminals and bus bars.
DURABILITY Work trucks, emergency vehicles, and other heavy- duty vehicles are subject to extreme conditions and rough handling. Multi-pin connectors that are designed to withstand vibration, shock, and environmental factors help ensure that these vehicles operate reliably in even the harshest conditions.
Aptiv family of HES connectors
Circular connectors with plastic or metal housing are often used on electrical panels found in heavy- duty on and off-highway equipment. Their circular shape and strong materials make these connectors especially tough and durable. Examples include the Aptiv family of HES connectors as well as Amphenol Sine Systems’ DuraMate AHDM and ATHD Series connectors.
Some suppliers offer industry-standard connectors with wire leads pre-assembled, a modularity enhancement that reduces installation and replacement time.
Amphenol Sine Systems’ DuraMate AHDM (left) and ATHD Series connectors.
SAFETY Safety is a top concern for emergency responders, fire crews, and police officers. Multi-pin connectors that are designed with safety in mind, such as those
Aptiv Weather-Pack and Metri-Pack connectors available from Waytek have preassembled wire leads.
that are easy to identify, grip, and disconnect, can help prevent accidents and injuries in high- pressure situations. STRAIN RELIEF, LOCKING MECHANISMS, TPA, AND CPA Heavy-duty connectors come in a variety of options that provide added safety and convenience. Look for features such as strain relief, which consists of an extended housing to prevent wire from bending at the point where it meets the terminal, and locking tabs that ensure your connection is secure. Many locking clips can handle an engagement force of 50 pounds or higher. Terminal Position Assurance (TPA) and Connector Position Assurance (CPA) are also available inside many connectors to provide an added measure of strain relief and protection for wires inside the connector.
The locking tabs of an Amphenol Sine Systems 12-Way ATM Connector plug can handle an engagement force of up to 89 pounds.
An Aptiv hybrid connector with a red-colored connector position assurance (CPA) mechanism.
An example of strain relief in the extended housing of an Amphenol Sine Systems AT Series connector.
CONNECTORS WITH BUILT-IN LEDS Manufacturers such as Amphenol Sine Systems offer connectors with built-in LED lights that enable quick identification of connectors in the “on” state for visibility and safety during maintenance and troubleshooting.
A blue connector from Amphenol Sine Systems’ AT colored connector series.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS When specifying connectors for semi-trucks, work trucks, and emergency, fire, and police vehicles, take advantage of connectors with high circuit density (pin density) to reduce the number of connectors required. Be aware that heavy-duty connectors typically have flammability ratings of either UL94V-2 or 94V-0 which will be critical for heavy-duty applications. Many connectors mentioned in this article also carry high ingress protection ratings (from IP65 up to IP6K9K) to indicate that they are well-protected against dust and liquid intrusion.
CONNECTORS WITH COLORED HOUSINGS Some connectors are available in a variety of colored housings that can serve to designate specific wires and circuits, making it easier for end users and installers to identify what they are working on. An AT Series LED Connector Plug from Amphenol Sine Systems.
To learn more, visit Waytek.
THE FUTURE OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTATION AND THE ERA
OF ELECTRIFICATION MARK COLEY, SENIOR PRODUCT MANAGER KAREN JAMES, PRODUCT MANAGER ZACHARY FISHER, PRODUCT MANAGER STEPHANIE WILLIAMES, PRODUCT MANAGER CAMERON SANDERS, PRODUCT SPECIALIST PEI-GENESIS
Over the last decade, new technological advancements have been leading the commercial transportation industry to innovative product development, driving society into the future. Two dominant means of transportation, rail and commercial vehicles, transport goods, people, and services from point A to point B safely and efficiently. As these technologies evolve, we enter a new era of electrified interconnectivity. E-mobility and the use of electrified drivetrain technologies replace damaging petroleum fuels with advanced technologies that reduce carbon emissions and slow the climate impacts of human activities. At the
same time, new technologies improve the safety, communications, and comforts of transportation.
The demand for connectors that can handle higher voltage and current, transmit data faster and more reliably, and support miniaturization and sustainability efforts is increasing to support an electrified future. Engineers must also consider durable interconnects that can endure harsh environmental conditions as they adapt to these advancements. Newer products mainly focus on transmitting data faster, while legacy items are designed for digital and analog signals and power distribution.
TRIED-AND-TRUE LEGACY CONNECTOR SOLUTIONS Legacy connector products have been available to the industry for decades. Heavy duty connectors are a proven, tried-and-true solution for transportation applications experiencing heavy vibration from mechanical stresses and severe weather conditions, such as storms or extreme temperature fluctuations. Traditional heavy-duty connectors remain vital in rail and commercial vehicles to provide secure connections. MIL-DTL-5015 CONNECTORS MIL-DTL-5015 connectors were originally designed for military and aerospace applications, making them highly reliable, with safety at the core of every operation. Now, they are commonly used in rail applications for power and durability. They are built to withstand vibration, shock, and salt spray, have high chemical resistance, and have a resilient polychloroprene insulator and rear-sealing grommet to guarantee a liquid-tight assembly. MIL- DTL-5015 connectors are an extremely versatile and cost-effective solution that continuously supports power distribution units such as engines, motors, and battery systems.
MIL-DTL-26482 CONNECTORS MIL-DTL-26482 connectors are quick-disconnect bayonet MIL-Spec circular connectors designed to support various applications. Similar to 5015 connectors, 26482 connectors were initially built for military use but have extended to the transportation industry. In rail mass transit, these connectors are commonly found in HVAC, brake, and door systems. MIL-DTL-26482 connectors’ ability to withstand harsh environments and maintain a secure, reliable connection makes them a popular choice for applications that demand high performance and durability. Legacy items such as MIL-DTL-5015 or MIL- DTL-26482 connectors ensure durable, long- lasting connections in even the most rugged environments, making them essential in the transportation industry.
MODERNIZATION OF RAIL The main applications in rolling stock are sensors, couplers, inter car, doors, and HVAC systems, all of which require ruggedized solutions to perform reliably in the rail industry. Electrical connectors in these applications must resist various physical contaminants, including water, salt, dust, dirt, sand, and other debris. If the connectors are made from Souriau 851 Series Connectors comply with Mil-Spec requirements and provide a highly reliable solution in challenging environments. They feature a robust, high-strength aluminum alloy shell in a compact and lightweight design.
Conesys MIL-DTL-5015 Connector Series is environmentally sealed and features a flexible design with a self-locking plug. These features allow it to perform in harsh conditions where shock, vibration, and fluid intrusion are present.
metal, they must be highly corrosion-resistant, especially in areas where they will be exposed to salt. To comply with all relevant railway standards, connectors must also have an IP65 rating or higher. Additionally, low-fire-hazard properties such as flame retardancy, low smoke emissions, low toxicity, and halogen-free materials are required, along with compliance with RoHS regulations. By meeting these requirements, MIL-DTL-5015 and MIL-DTL-26482 connectors can provide reliable and safe operation for the critical systems used in rolling stock applications. As electrification moves into rail environments, new technologies are being developed to support the demand for high data transmission speeds and more robust connectivity. Integrating IoT sensors and real-time data analytics will improve operational efficiency and the passenger experience. SurLok Plus compression lugs from Amphenol are an ideal solution in the mass transit and electrification market to support these ever- growing demands. With an impressive IP67 rating, these lugs are environmentally sealed, touch-proof, and RoHS compliant, ensuring optimal safety and reliability in harsh conditions. The integral latching system further enhances the electrical and mechanical
connection, while the lugs are available in ratings of up to 350A. Thanks to their compact and robust design, SurLok Plus compression lugs provide a space-saving and durable solution for high-power applications in the transit and electrification industry.
SurLok Plus compression lugs from Amphenol feature the latest R4 RADSOK contact technology.
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES Connectors play a critical role in many sub-systems within mass transit buses, delivery vehicles, and truck applications, including battery connections, power distribution, charging systems, lift gates, and auxiliary power units. Like rail transportation,
connectors must withstand related hazards such as vibration, shock, and salt spray. Engineers must be aware of shell plating, contact plating, voltage requirements, and sealing capabilities to ensure operational integrity. However, new products will be needed to support the ongoing shift toward e-mobility and signal- based technology as the transportation industry grows. Some new connector technologies on the horizon include high-speed data transfer, wireless charging, and designs that can withstand high temperatures and vibrations. More specifically, ITT Cannon’s EV Series supports electric vehicles and charging stations with a portfolio of inlets and outlets. ITT Cannon's EV Series is designed to meet all regional standards and is equipped to perform exceptionally well in harsh environments. These connectors have low contact resistance, ensuring they operate effectively even in dusty or fluid-prone environments. Harsh environments, including high temperatures, dust, and fluid intrusion, are no match for these connectors. Additionally, they are highly durable and can withstand up to 10,000 mating cycles. The new Gen 2+ contact system uses a canted coil spring design to deliver extended lifetime usage and minimize stress, misalignment, and power loss. These connectors are an excellent
ITT Cannon’s EV Connector Series includes AC solutions, DC fast charge, and liquid-cooled 500A HPC solutions to support charging technology worldwide.
solution for e-Mobility applications where reliability and durability are critical.
In each of these transportation systems, automated or manual, the goal remains the same: get people and cargo from point A to point B safely. Whether on the road or on railway tracks, each vehicle can expect to encounter harsh environments, which is why durable interconnects are needed to complete the mission. The emergence of new connectors and products has undoubtedly driven us into the future by facilitating faster and more efficient communication and connectivity. Yet, it is still important to acknowledge that legacy components are still widely used today.
Learn more PEI-Genesis.
… IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES
CHALLENGES IN CONNECTOR SELECTION IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES
ROB HERZOG, SENIOR ACCOUNT MANAGER, BSEE CHIEF ENTERPRISES
Selecting the appropriate electric vehicle (EV) connectors is integral to maximizing range and performance, two critical factors in the design of a new generation of cars. The proper connectors play an important role in electric drivetrains and other systems, ensuring safe, efficient, and reliable operation. In addition to connectors with high voltage and current handling capability, specialized connectors can handle high data transmission speeds specified for the cameras and sensors used in automation, safety, and connected transportation infrastructure. However, selecting connectors that can sufficiently withstand the high power and current requirements, meet regulatory standards, and provide high levels of reliability and durability can be a challenge for EV designers. Continuous
innovation, testing, and validation of automotive connectors, the result of the collaborative efforts of manufacturers, suppliers, and regulatory bodies, is giving designers powerful new choices for EV systems. CHALLENGES IN CONNECTOR SELECTION Engineers face several challenges when selecting connectors for electric vehicle systems, including: • Electrical requirements: EVs require high- voltage, high-current electrical connectors to power the drivetrain, battery, and charging systems. These connectors must also be able to withstand harsh environmental conditions such as high temperatures and humidity. Moreover, the connectors must have low
factors such as voltage, current, temperature, and transmission speed requirements. Electric vehicles require high and low voltage connectors. Know the industry requirements. Adherence to safety and environmental requirements is non- negotiable. Engineers should consult the latest industry requirements, including: • ISO 26262: This international standard outlines functional safety requirements for automotive components, including electrical connectors. It defines the safety requirements for the entire vehicle lifecycle, from design to decommissioning, and ensures that the connectors meet the required safety integrity levels (SIL). • SAE J1772: This North American standard outlines the requirements for electric vehicle conductive charging systems and specifies the connector and communication protocol used for EV charging. It defines the charging connector interface, electrical ratings, and communication protocol between the vehicle and the charging station.
resistance to minimize power losses, and heat dissipation should be optimized to prevent overheating. • Safety requirements: Safety is a top priority in the design of all vehicles, and connectors used in EVs must meet stringent safety standards. For example, connectors used in the battery system must be able to withstand high levels of shock and vibration and must be designed to prevent accidental disconnection. • Compatibility: The connectors used in an EV must be compatible with other components in the system and those used in other EVs on the market to facilitate repair and maintenance. The use of standardized connectors helps ensure interoperability. • Reliability and durability: EV connectors need to be high performing to operate in the demanding environment of EV drivetrains, batteries, and charging systems. HOW DESIGN ENGINEERS OVERCOME CONNECTOR SELECTION CHALLENGES Evaluate the requirements. Conduct a thorough analysis of the electrical requirements for each component of the EV. This analysis should include Electric vehicles require a variety of connectors throughout the vehicle, including drivetrain, battery, and charging systems.
SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE
ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV) CONNECTORS IS INTEGRAL TO MAXIMIZING RANGE AND PERFORMANCE
• UL 2251: This international safety standard for the evaluation of connectors used in electric vehicles covers the performance, construction, and testing of connectors used in an EV’s high- voltage systems. • IEC 61851: This international standard outlines the requirements for conductive charging systems for electric vehicles. It defines the communication protocol, electrical ratings, and performance requirements for EV charging connectors. • UNECE Regulation No. 100: This European regulation defines the uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles regarding their electrical powertrain components, including connectors. It covers safety requirements, electromagnetic compatibility, and environmental protection requirements. Perform testing & validation. Evaluate the durability and reliability of connectors under harsh environmental conditions, including shock, vibration, high temperatures, and humidity. Seek out quality and consider the total cost of ownership. Maintenance and replacement costs should be factored into the equation when selecting connectors. Connectors that are reliable and durable may be more expensive upfront but
can save money over the lifetime of the vehicle. Any failure in connectors can lead to system downtime and loss of revenue. The need for quality connection is paramount. Overall, the selection of connectors for EVs is a complex process that requires careful consideration of electrical requirements, safety standards, compatibility, durability, and cost. By following best practices and conducting thorough analysis and testing, engineers can overcome these challenges and select the best connectors for their EV designs. Innovation in connector design is crucial in addressing these challenges. Manufacturers need to continually innovate connector design to meet the rapidly evolving field of EV technologies. Testing and validation of connectors help ensure the quality and performance of connectors. Collaboration among manufacturers, suppliers, and regulatory bodies is crucial in developing effective connector options for electric vehicles. Collaboration can also lead to knowledge sharing, innovation, and cost-saving benefits.
To learn more about designing-in low or high voltage connectors, visit Chief Enterprises.
KEY ATTRIBUTES NEEDED BY EV BATTERY MONITORING INTERCONNECTS
RYAN SMART VICE PRESIDENT OF PRODUCT HARWIN PLC
The foundation of any electric vehicle (EV) powertrain is the battery pack, where the electrical energy supplied by the charging infrastructure is stored. When the vehicle is moving, the battery pack is responsible for delivering the stored energy to the traction motor. Fueled by the widespread adoption of automotive electrification and rising EV sales, Fortune Business Insights has predicted that the EV battery market will expand dramatically between now and 2028, seeing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of over 28% during that time. As the battery pack is the most expensive part of an EV, making certain that it remains in good working order through countless charge cycles is a clear priority. Fewer required battery replacements will help reduce the total cost of ownership of the vehicle. The battery management system (BMS) is, therefore, quite important for its role in prolonging the lifespan of the battery pack and ensuring that
any situations that could lead to cell failure are mitigated.
BMS FUNCTIONS The BMS is an essential element of any EV’s powertrain. Connected to the battery pack and its constituent lithium ion (Li-ion) cells, the BMS monitors and regulates various parameters within these cells (such as voltage, current, and temperature) to maintain optimal operating conditions. The BMS also supervises the charging and discharging of the battery pack and helps identify the early appearance of any thermal hotspots or short circuits. Another key facet of an EV’s BMS is that it can support cell balancing, which addresses the unavoidable production variances in cell capacity. Cell balancing distributes the charge appropriately across the battery pack, so that weaker performing
cells are placed under less strain. The BMS can also manage the electrical energy that is produced by regenerative braking, sending it back to the battery pack for storage. This contributes to more efficient EV operation. As well as being expensive, the battery pack is one of the heaviest and bulkiest parts of the vehicle. Automotive OEMs are constantly looking for ways to make their EVs lighter. Reducing vehicle payload allows them to consume less power and travel longer distances between charges. By increasing the battery’s charge capacities, it can be made more lightweight and take up less room. This means that a greater number of cells must fit into the same volume. The latest generation of EVs can integrate as many as 8,000 to 10,000 Li-ion cells in their battery packs. Each of these will need to be monitored via the BMS – which represents a substantial data overhead. Consequently, higher
density BMS infrastructure that can support faster transfer rates is now being required.
BMS INTERCONNECT ATTRIBUTES To be effective in an EV BMS context, the chosen interconnects must possess an extensive array of properties. Making full use of the EV’s stored electrical charge is paramount, as this will extend the range that the vehicle can cover without the battery pack needing to be replenished. To minimize power losses within the BMS, effort must be made to specify interconnects that have very low contact resistance values. At the same time, the contact material must have adequate durability. On top of this, space limitations must be considered. Interconnects that have a large enough number of contact pins but only take up a relatively small amount of board real estate will be preferred.
Ideally, a product series with a broad variety of pin count options will be used. This will provide the vehicle manufacturer with greater design flexibility and enable more contacts to be accommodated within the available space. Automotive environments are challenging and the safety-critical nature of powertrain applications means that ongoing operational robustness is mandated. Any interconnect components employed will need to cope with vibrational forces and heavy shocks, as well as exposure to elevated temperatures. In addition, appropriate shielding mechanisms will need to be put in place to protect the system’s signal integrity from nearby sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI), while respecting the space and weight constraints that come with EV installation. To keep pace with current in-vehicle networking demands and enable rapid responsiveness, BMS interconnects must support high data rates. The deployed components should also be impervious to dust and liquid ingress that might otherwise impinge upon their performance. Effective mechanisms should be applied so that connector and cable retention is assured.
Another aspect that cannot be overlooked is production line assembly. The installation of interconnects at OEM facilities need to be completed within a very short timeframe. Under such circumstances, the likelihood of these components getting damaged becomes much greater. Designing protective features into them will make a huge difference. INTERCONNECTS OPTIMIZED FOR BMS INSTALLATION The high-reliability Archer Kontrol series of board- to-board connectors developed by Harwin is seeing large-scale uptake by EV manufacturers around the world, both disruptive start-ups and established global brands. These 1.27 mm-pitch components come in compact form factors and have a rugged construction. They are shrouded to protect their contacts against damage and have polarization features to prevent mis-mating. Numerous different pin count versions can be selected, with both vertical and horizontal configurations available. Advanced latching mechanisms are incorporated for greater mating pair retention.
The high contact densities these connectors achieve means that, despite their size, they can
CONNECT TECHNOLOGY WITH CONFIDENCE
Archer Kontrol interconnects can withstand 20G vibrations, 50G shocks, and temperatures from -55 °C all the way up to 125 °C. Stacking heights from 8 mm to 20 mm can be sourced. Off-the- shelf cable assemblies (measuring 150 mm or 300 mm in length) can be provided. Harwin also offers custom cabling solutions to fit with more specific requirements. Finally, the unit pricing of these interconnects means that they are a cost-effective option for automotive OEMs. The safe and efficient ongoing operation of EV battery packs calls for access to detailed parametric data. This means that suitable interconnect hardware is needed by BMS implementations. Such interconnects must be made from heavy-duty materials, while also having superior performance capabilities. Looking ahead, expectations for accelerated data rates and smaller-size formats are likely. Furthermore, pin counts are only going to keep getting higher, as the cell densities in battery packs continue to increase.
provide sufficient channels for transferring BMS data. They can deliver data rates reaching 3 Gb/s (keeping them aligned with the sort of speeds that Ethernet networking within the rest of the vehicle will be running at). Archer Kontrol contacts are made from a phosphor bronze alloy that has a gold/tin finish applied to provide an optimal combination of conductivity and durability. They each have a 1.25A current rating.
Harwin’s Archer Kontrol connectors meet the contact density and data rate expectations of modern BMS deployments.
Visit Harwin plc to learn more.
COMPACT DC CCS CHARGING CABLES ENABLE DC CHARGING AT HOME BJOERN FALKE, PRODUCT MARKETING MANAGER, E-MOBILITY INFRASTRUCTURE PHOENIX CONTACT USA
MARKUS BELKNER , PRODUCT MANAGEMENT CONNECTIVITY DANIELA STÜKER , PRODUCT MANAGEMENT CONNECTIVITY PHOENIX CONTACT E-MOBILITY GMBH
Advances in charging technology are key to the increased adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). Consumers demand charging infrastructure that is readily available, convenient to use, and suitable for achieving the desired driving range. Charging solutions that enable fast charging are gaining importance, making it easier for drivers to continue their trips without lengthy charging stops (see Figure 1). DC CHARGING SAVES TIME Today, AC charging stations are mainly used as a solution in the semi-public sector, such as at grocery stores, restaurants, or in your employer’s parking lot. Since most grid connections and EVs only allow single-phase charging, a complete charge can take longer than 10 hours. One of the main advantages of using DC charging is higher output and reduced charging times. As a result, EVs with a DC charger can charge significantly faster than those with an AC charger.
Figure 1. The new, compact CCS charging cables have been specially designed for a power range from 40 kW to 80 kW. They are perfect for DC home charging stations and enable fast DC charging for homeowners and in the public space.
Simply increasing AC charging power levels is problematic, as vehicle manufacturers would have
to install more powerful onboard chargers that will convert the alternating current from the charging station into direct current for the vehicle battery. This can be costly and adds complexity, due to the limited space available in the vehicle and the additional weight of larger onboard chargers. With increased availability of lower-powered private DC charging stations, vehicle manufacturers can install less powerful, and therefore simpler, onboard chargers in their electric vehicles. In combination with Smart Homes, photovoltaics, and vehicle-to-home applications, direct current can be transferred to the car and back with minimal conversion losses. Consumers demand an increased driving range from their EVs. This requires larger batteries, which take longer to charge. To reduce charging times, the implementation of faster DC charging options in private and semi-public applications will naturally increase. With a greater range, faster charging speeds, and the appropriate charging infrastructure, EV owners won’t have to drastically change what they’ve become accustomed to doing with their old internal combustion engine vehicles.
Figure 2. Thanks to a bidirectional flow of energy, the current can flow in a controlled manner from the vehicle battery through the charging station and into the power grid or your own home. Alongside intelligent charging controllers, a corresponding energy management system is needed that also includes photovoltaic (PV) systems and home storage batteries alongside the vehicle. This prevents bottlenecks and grid overvoltages.
FAST CHARGING IS INCREASINGLY IN DEMAND
Low-power DC charging stations for charging power between 40 kW and 80 kW have already been developed and deployed. They are also compatible with solar and battery storage systems. The bidirectional converter technology enables the interaction between power generation, storage, and EV charging at home. The DC charging station of the near future will be able to perform V2H (vehicle-to-home) and V2G (vehicle-to- grid) energy feed-in (Figure 2).
To support the increasing demand for low-power DC charging, the appropriate charging cables are already available globally in the Combined Charging System (CCS) Type 1 and Type 2 formats.
private homes where EV drivers would like to benefit from faster DC charging. Charging an EV at home can be done either with mains (utility) power or with DC power from a residential PV system. An additional application area is the charging of last-mile delivery vans or other fleet vehicles that have relatively short rest periods or need frequent recharging to complete their journey. The main advantage of using low-power DC charging instead of AC charging for an EV is the higher output and, thus, reduced charging times it enables. This new technology will lay the foundation for easy, everyday EV fast charging in semi-public and private areas. And it will gain even more importance with the increased adoption of electric vehicles in the coming years.
NEW CHARGING CONNECTOR IS AVAILABLE WORLDWIDE
The new compact CCS charging connector has smaller dimensions and a much lower weight compared to the traditional “high-power” DC charging connectors. This modern and ergonomic design gives these compact CCS charging connectors a harmonized look, plus they are easier to handle in day-to-day use. Integrated highly sensitive temperature sensors measure heat generation in real time directly at the silver-plated DC contacts. In addition, a sophisticated interior sealing concept also provides superior protection against water entry for the current-conducting components in the charge connector. Their rugged, high-quality design provides reliable operation in wide ambient temperature ranges, such as outdoor applications for public DC charging stations.
The new compact CCS charging cables from Phoenix Contact allow cost-efficient fast charging at lower power levels, reducing charging times.
Applications for DC charging in the lower charging range are mainly found in semi-public areas and
To learn more, visit Phoenix Contact.
CHARGING TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENTS WILL ACCELERATE EV ADOPTION GABE OSORIO, DIRECTOR, TRANSPORTATION MARKETING TTI AMERICAS
Flexibility is a key requirement for EV designers with ever-changing specifications for charging rates and battery types, and the possibility of contactless charging.
increased, with 60% of consumers saying they would consider purchasing an EV. In 2022, the Biden Administration’s Bipartisan Infrastructure Bill committed $5 billion in the next few years to build an expanded network of EV charging stations. Prices are lowering, consumers are gaining interest, and government is increasing its commitment to EVs. What’s holding them back is the technology,
Charging EVs is still inconvenient and slow in many areas, which is a main reason EV adoption in the U.S. (now around 5%) lags far behind Europe (around 20%). But there are some promising signs that greater acceptance is on the way. New vehicle prices in general rose by an average of 2.2% from 2020 to 2021, compared to EVs which decreased by 10.8%. Public interest in purchasing EVs has
but some exciting innovations are just around the corner.
INCREASED AND ENHANCED CHARGING STATIONS In the last two years, EV sales have tripled, and the number of publicly available charging ports has grown by at least 40%, with over 130,000 public chargers across the country. With this growth has come advances in charging technology, allowing for greater power, efficiency, and speed. IMPROVED BATTERY TECHNOLOGY An alternative to lithium-ion batteries is being pursued that is less expensive, faster to charge, longer-lived, and not reliant on scarce minerals. New options such as sodium-ion offer possibilities, and innovators are also exploring solid state batteries and even quantum batteries, which can charge fully in three minutes. SMART BATTERY MANAGEMENT When enough cells degrade to the point where the battery is no longer useful, they can be “racked and stacked” so the EV batteries can act as one very large battery for local storage of energy from the grid or from renewable sources. In so doing, the non-functioning cells are revitalized and charging is optimized. SELF-HEALING ALGORITHMS Self-healing algorithms built into an EV charging management platform can repair up to 80% of the software-related issues that render EV chargers inoperable. The ability to detect issues in real- time and automatically repair them can maximize chargers’ uptime and optimize the process.
SMART CHARGING Smart EV charging delivers reliable, renewable, and cost-effective energy to EVs while meeting the needs of drivers and local electric grids. The technology relies on sophisticated back-end software that captures data from EVs, networked chargers, and the grid to optimize charging, integrate power from storage and renewable sources, and minimize impact on the grid. WIRELESS CHARGING Wireless charging is on the horizon. Companies like WAVE are currently doing this for buses. Drivers pull to a stop over the charging infrastructure buried in the road. A receiving panel on the bottom of the bus is engaged wirelessly to charge when driven over the road plate. This is being tested on U.S. roadways.
New charging stations are coming online across North America every day, with connections growing by 40% since 2021.
while it is on the move, using coils under the asphalt to transfer energy to receivers on the vehicle. On the world’s first electrified road, outside Stockholm, Sweden, energy is transferred from two tracks of rail in the road via a movable arm attached to the bottom of a vehicle, recharging it efficiently. The public demand for EVs is greater than ever, along with demand for the new charging technology needed to support them. That’s why TTI is making such a significant commitment to its future in EVs, offering the broadest and widest variety of electronic components, powertrain units, charging stations, and more for the exciting road ahead in this fast-paced industry.
ELECTRIFIED ROADS Work has already begun on inductive charging technology that enables a vehicle to be charged Vehicles can be charged while on the move using coils under the asphalt to transfer energy to the receivers on the vehicle.
To learn more, visit Transportation Resource Center Products | TTI, Inc.
A GUIDE TO EV CHARGING POINTS AVNET
Manufacturers, installers, and operators of electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment are running to keep up with the rapidly growing demand for charging infrastructure and the unpredictable nature of their industry. Electric vehicle supply equipment delivers power in a variety of ways and at different levels. All EVs can accept Type 1 and Type 2 AC, but they don’t all accept DC Fast Charge (DCFC). This issue affects the supply chain, from manufacturers of electric vehicle supply equipment to charge point operators and charge point installers. THE TWO MAIN TYPES OF EV Electric vehicles rely entirely on batteries for motive power. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles run on a battery some of the time, usually at low
speeds, and a conventional gas or diesel engine supplements the battery power. Hybrid vehicles are more common than EVs but, as battery technology advances, that could change. According to the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association, sales of hybrid vehicles grew by 24.9% in the last quarter of 2021 compared to the same period in 2020. Over the same timeframe, comparable EV sales fell by 1.8%. The U.S. market shows a similar trend. The Department of Energy reports that EVs were 73% of the 608,000 plug-in electric vehicles sold in 2021, nearly double the percentage in 2020. EV CHARGING BASICS Hybrid vehicles have small batteries, but the backup function of an internal combustion engine means they are not totally dependent on charger
availability, relieving so-called range anxiety – the idea that drivers could get stranded between charge points. The growth in charge point availability, and the fact that now some EVs boast a range of 500 miles or more, is relieving that fear. However, for the charging infrastructure industry, deploying planned charging stations that can service every type of vehicle is still a big challenge amid supply chain shortages. Home charging is another option for EV owners. An EV can be charged using slow or fast charging technology, depending on the vehicle and the owner’s investment in charging equipment. Charging a car from an everyday domestic socket is known as Mode 1, or Level 1 charging. It is limited to the socket rating, which in the U.S. is 120 volts at 15 or 20 amps, just 2.4 kW maximum. In the UK, sockets are commonly rated at 240 volts at 13 amps, a little over 3 kW. Level 1 charging takes about a day to fully charge an EV, but it is sufficient for a battery top-off. To fully charge a Tesla Model 3 without a dedicated charger at home or work could take 24-36 hours, but charging rarely begins at zero, and overnight charging, say 12 hours, will often be enough to top up a battery. Level 2 charging requires homeowners to install a dedicated 240 volt charging device, similar to the power supply needed for a stove or clothes dryer, but it delivers a much faster charge. Commercial installations commonly offer AC charging at up to 22 kW – something that is only possible with a three-phase AC in a domestic environment. Not many homes have this option. As EV analyst Loren McDonald pointed out, “Most cars are parked for 22 to 23 hours each day, so EV parking means EV charging.” That works well for those close enough to an outlet at home or work, but in many places, for example, on-street parking is the only available option. These EV owners rely much more on
charge points or charging stations, which employ Level 2 or Level 3 charging. Level 2 technology employs a dedicated 7 kW charger and cable, and the time to fully charge drops to 1 or 2 hours. Level 3 charging, also called direct current fast charging, can fully charge a vehicle in 30 minutes, depending on the vehicle. Ultra-fast Level 4 charging at 1.5 MW is an emerging option that is currently only available to very large commercial vehicle battery packs, such as the Tesla Semi. EVs connect to charging equipment via a Type 1 or Type 2 connector (see Figure 1). Type 1 connectors feature 5 pins and Type 2 connectors have 7 pins. Both types are in widespread use today, but most carmakers are moving towards the Type 2 format. Tesla, an EV maker with about 50% market share across Europe and North America, also uses the Type 2 connector for higher power Level 4 DC charging. A few vehicles, such as the Nissan Leaf and the Mitsubishi Outlander, use a Japanese- developed standard called CHAdeMO, a Level 2-type connector for DC charging.
THE SUB-50 KW SEGMENTS WILL
REMAIN THE LARGEST EV CHARGER MARKET
The range of options available for EV charging today (UK-style domestic plug shown)
DC charging is preferred anywhere that faster charging is needed because of the higher power available. Chargers can deliver anything from 24kW to over 150kW and are found at highway service areas, supermarkets, and parking lots at various other commercial enterprises, as well as at educational, medical, and governmental facilities. Charge point operators and installers must decide what to order from charge point manufacturers for these public charging environments. UNDERSTANDING DRIVER BEHAVIOR IS CRITICAL Data-sharing partnerships are appearing along the EV supply chain so that charge point installers get to know a lot about likely demand from drivers before vehicles even make it onto the roads. Data is not just flowing to drivers; it is coming back from them too.
working with major EV charging providers, including Blink Charging, ChargePoint, EV ConnectSM, EVgo, FLO, Greenlots, and SemaConnect. In addition, apps such as MyChevrolet will allow customers to “see real-time information from approximately 80,000 places to charge throughout the U.S. and Canada, find charging stations along a route, and initiate and pay for charging.” The key factors that will determine what type of chargers are built and where they will be installed include: • The number of deposits paid on EVs, the vehicle types (and range), and the geographic location of upcoming drivers. • Sales of EVs by type and locality. • Patterns in car movements in various locations extracted from mobile phone location data (mobile phone apps are integral to the EV driving experience). • Availability of grid resources to power the chargers and whether these resources are from sustainable assets such as solar farms.
General Motors announced its plans to make charging more convenient for its customers by
• The cost of electricity from the utility providers. In extreme instances, the cost may be twice as high on one side of the highway as on the other. The volume of available data is vast, so charging station operators rely on data science and artificial intelligence (AI) to identify trends and build out EV charging infrastructure that will best meet forecast demand. EV CHARGE POINT GROWTH BY POWER RATING Infineon’s white paper, “ Realizing the future of fast EV charging through CoolSiC based topology design ,” cites Yole Développement’s 2021 research report, “ DC charging for EV: a decisive outlook for the power electronics industry ” to predict that high-end DC fast charging at 100 kW to 200 kW will see a 30% CAGR during the next few years, the fastest in the sector, but even sub-50 kW charging posts will see double-digit growth.
The EV charger market will see double-digit growth at every power level but the 100 kW to 200 kW segment will see the fastest growth as public charging infrastructure investment soars. The sub-50 kW segments will remain the largest EV charger market in terms of the number of units sold. The convenience of at-home charging and the lower cost of low-power chargers are the prevailing factors for this. However, when charging needs to take a little more time than that needed to fill a diesel or gasoline car, high-power DC fast chargers are the only answer. As a result, growth in their demand for public charging infrastructure is assured. EVstatistics.com reported in May 2022 that 70% of Electrify America’s US DC fast chargers are 150 kW, so that appears to be the sweet spot for public charging stations.
TEETHING TROUBLES WITH DC FAST CHARGING
Some concerns have been raised that DC fast charging will reduce the operating life of batteries,
The EV charger market will see double-digit growth at every power level but the 100 kW to 200 kW segment will see the fastest growth as public charging infrastructure investment soars.
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